LABORATORY WORK NO

■mission to the hospi-ninations on that ad­dition on his second

iIn immediate cause of iIn-

IN 37)

1. 1. onsetначало; приступ

the onset of the disease, the onset of the inliting; a sudden onset of palpitation; The onsci

2. to precedeпредшествовать

to precede the onset of the disease; Lunj utinia. What preceded the development of these

3. moderateумеренный; средний

a moderate increase; a moderate elevatloileucocytosis; the foci of moderate intensity

4. readingsпоказания (прибора) important readings; the readingsofthe el* I

ings; on the basis of all the obtained readi i

5. slightслабый; тонкий; незначителен a slight cold; a slight attack of the dis

temperature; not the slightest doubt; The h

6. confirmподтверждать

to confirm the initial diagnosis; to be LABORATORY WORK NO con!confirmsyourconclusion?Thepresenccu! ml', и U li turn analysis.

7. murmurшум (в сердце)

diastolic murmur; a slight systolic mummirmuratthe base of the heart; to estimate murmurs of various inin .....

8. durationпродолжительность

the duration of the treatment; the iIni.i i n ii illI In .....uirmurs; to determine

the duration of investigations

9. insist (on)настаивать на

to insist on abed regimen; to insist on prolonging Iht treatment;Do you insist on these conditions? I hi led onthe patient's being

operated on immediately.

10. strictстрогий; strictlyстрого, гочно

a strict bed regimen; to follow a stiii i diet,'.i 11( i hospital rules; strictly speaking; to carry out the doctoi LABORATORY WORK NO 'l administrationsstrictly

11. 1. a well-nourished male; 2. to undergo thecourse of treatment; 3. a limited amount of fluid; 4. to limit the elevation of protein; 5.the dose is a tablespoonful af­ter (before) meals; 6. the recurrence was eliminated; 7. the patient was followcd-up;

ess; the onset of von i U iliddenly.

preceded by pneunm

re; to reveal modcrair

' u determine the read

. a slight elevation ol i\ i nlarged.

iv examination; What onfirmedbythespu-

1518. the administered preparations; 9. the insufficiency of vitamins causes avitamino-sis; 10. all the inflammatory processes have been eliminated; 11. take a teaspoonful of this medicine three times a day.

III.1. Послерецидива ревматического эндокардита больной вновь поступил LABORATORY WORK NO в больницу. 2. Больная соблюдает курс лечения стрептомицином длительный период времени. 3. За приступом боли в груди последовала об­щая слабость. 4. Чтобы проследитьотдаленные результаты у больного, врач вызывал его несколько раз в году. 5. За тяжелыми формами пневмонии иног­да следует гангрена легкого. 6. Полное выздоровление последовало за курсом соответствующего лечения.

TV.I. The students watched the physician takethe patient's blood pressure. 2. The patient felt the pain varyin its intensity and duration. 3. The cardiologist heard the heart murmurs besoft systolic. 4. The researcher saw the microorganisms multiplyvery rapidly.

'V. 1. The students watched the attending doctor listeningto the patient's heart. 2. We saw LABORATORY WORK NO the electrocardiogram readings changinggradually. 3. The nurse on duty heard the patient coughingall night long. 4. 1 felt my heart beatingrapidly on physi­cal exertion.

•VI. 1. on, of; 2. at, by, of; 3. after, of, at, of, to; 4. of, with, of, of; 5. in, of; 6. in, to, of, in, in, of

VII. Listen to the text "Acute Bacterial Endocarditis".

Acute bacterial endocarditis is one of the forms of the impairment of endocar­dium.

The disease develops as a complication of some primary focus of infection. The causative agents of the disease may be streptococci, staphylococci, meningococci and other organisms. If the primary focus of infection has external LABORATORY WORK NO localization it is readily diagnosed. However, there are cases with deeply localized internal primary focus of infection, which present much difficulty for the diagnosis.

From the local focus of infection pathogenic organisms enter the general blood flow and form secondary foci of infection. Such foci may develop in the endocar­dium affecting the aortic, mitral and sometimes tricuspid valves.

In some cases acute bacterial endocarditis is accompanied by purulent pericardi­tis and pleurisy.

VIII. 1. What may the causative agents of acute bacterial endocarditis be? 2. What primary foci of infection may this disease have? 3. What heart valves are usually affected in acute LABORATORY WORK NO bacterial endocarditis? 4. What is acute bacterial en­docarditis sometimes accompanied by?

LABORATORY WORK NO. 43 (LESSON 38) I. I. to noteотмечать, замечать

to note the changes; to note a considerable improvement; to be noted by fre­quent attacks of vomiting; The patient noted a slight edema of both extremities.

2. to radiateраспространяться; отдавать; излучать

to radiate to the shoulder; to radiate gradually; to radiate rapidly; The pain radiated to the back.

3. frequentlyчасто; многократно; frequentчастый, многократный

to cough frequently; frequent cough; frequent attacks; a frequent sharp pain in the substernal area. The elevation of blood pressure was noted frequently. The pain developed not very LABORATORY WORK NO frequently.



4. incidenceчисло случаев; частота (заболеваний)

the incidence of attacks; the incidence of acute bacterial endocarditis; to estimate the incidence of this disease

5. overstrainперенапряжение, чрезмерное усилие

great overstrain; physical overstrain; mental overstrain; to feel overstrain

6. disturbanceрасстройство, нарушение, повреждение

the disturbances of the blood flow; the disturbance of metabolism; The overstrain may produce nervous system disturbances.

7. diminishуменыиать(ся), убавлять(ся); слабеть, ослаблять the diminished heart sounds; Edema is gradually diminishing. The attacks of cough diminish. The heart size was diminished.

8. deviateотклонять(ся), отступать (от нормы)

to deviate considerably; to deviate from normal gradually; deviated electrocar­diogram readings; deviating findings of the blood analysis

II. 1. rising; 2. an adequate; 3. diminished LABORATORY WORK NO; 4. disturbance; 5. radiating; 6. fre­quently

III. 1. deviated; 2. radiates; 3. disturbances; 4. diminished; 5. adequate

IV. 1. On having been confirmed... После того как диагноз абсцесса легкого был подтвержден, больного немедленно госпитализировали.

2. Through being followed-up...Благодаря тому, что больной наблюдался по поводу отдаленных результатов в поликлиническом отделении, рецидин заболевания был предупрежден.

3. On having been eliminated...После того как были ликвидированы частныеслучаи сердечных приступов, больной почувствовал большое облегчение.

V. 1. Their plans to carry out these investigations in the near future failed.2. We did not expect him to fail at the examinations.3. Inspite of numerous experimenls the microbiologist failedto isolate the necessary cultures. 4. The treatment failed tocontrol cardiac LABORATORY WORK NO insufficiency. 5. The doctor failedto reveal heart enlargemeni byX-ray examination.

VI. Listen to the text "Hypertrophy and Dilatation of the Heart".

The heart is a pump. Its function is to pump the blood through the general andpulmonary circulation. The power required for this purpose varies greatly, depend i nc on the position, exercise and resistance to blood flow.

153To meet these varying requirements the heart has a wide reserve power. If the load on the heart is permanently increased the reserve is diminished or the heart undergoes hypertrophy to meet the increased requirements.

If, because of LABORATORY WORK NO poor nutrition, infection or overstrain, hypertrophy fails, or the reserve is eliminated, the heart dilates, and heart failure or cardiac insufficiency de­velops.

Hypertrophy of the heart muscle is almost always accompanied by increase in the size of the heart cavities, but in dilatation, properly speaking, the muscle walls be­come thin and lose their tone and the size of the cavities is disproportionally large.

VII.Listen to the text "Hypertrophy and Dilatation of the Heart" once more. LABORATORY WORK NO. 44 (LESSON 39)

1. I. suffer страдать (from); переносить

to suffer greatly; to suffer permanently; to suffer from bad attacks of cough; to suffer LABORATORY WORK NO from cardiac insufficiency; to suffer from a congenital heart defect: 1 suffered many diseases in my childhood.

2. besides кроме того; кроме; в дополнение (к)

besides me; besides physiotherapy; The patient was given injections besides medi­cine treatment. He is^a surgeon besides he is also interested in microbiology.

3. arrest остановка, задержка; прекращение; задерживать, (при­останавливать

cardiac arrest; the arrest of blood circulation; to arrest the blood flow; to arrest

the development of haemorrhage

4. damage повреждение, поражение; повреждать a serious damage to blood vessels; considerable damage caused by inflammation; complete damage to the con­nective tissue; partial brain

damage; to damage the left LABORATORY WORK NO lower extremity

5. result in заканчиваться; приводить к чему-л.; result from происходить в

результате; быть следствием

to result in heart failure; to result from the grippe; An adequate treatment re­sulted in complete recovery. A bad damage to the abdominal wall resulted in internal haemorrhage. A nervous disease resulted frorh constant overstrain. Vomiting often results from stomach diseases.

6. to exclude исключать

to exclude all possible mistakes; The patient was carefully examined to exclude food poisoning. The heart is excluded from the blood flow.

7. bandage перевязывать; повязка

to bandage the wound; to bandage the blood vessels; to put a bandage on the arm; to change LABORATORY WORK NO the bandage; The nurse took off the bandage.

8. incision разрез

a long incision; a short incision; the incision 3 cm in length; to make an incision on the abdominal wall; to close the incision of the external skin layer

9. danger опасность

to exclude the danger of haemorrhage; to eliminate the danger of heart failure; to prevent the danger of development of heart fibrillation; The life of the patient was in great danger.

II. 1. to suffer from a congenital heart defect; to suffer from heart failure; to suf­fer from cardiac fibrillation; to suffer from a serious damage to the leg; to suffer from food poisoning; to LABORATORY WORK NO suffer from profuse haemorrhage; 2. to arrest the blood flow; to arrest profuse haemorrhage; 3. to result in heart failure; to result in cardiac fibrillation; to result in a serious damage to the leg; to result in food poisoning; to result in profuse haemorrhage; 4. to exclude a congenital heart defect; to exclude cardiac fibrillation; to exclude the danger of inflammation; to exclude food poison­ing

III. 1. to arrest; 2. to exclude; 3. to result from; 4. to result in; 5. to cause; 6. to diminish; 7. drops; 8. to follow; 9. slight

IV. 1. from, since; 2, besides, before; 3. in, to; 4. of, from, of, to; 5. (noprep.) —; 6. at, of, of, from, in, of

V. 1. Due LABORATORY WORK NO to numerous investigations the physiologists have determined the brain cells to live without blood supply only four or five minutes. 2. Many scientists consider the artificial heart to be more effective than the transplanted one. 3. Rus­sian researchers have found out some blood cells to be damaged while passing through the artificial blood circulation apparatus.

VI. Listen to the text "The Meeting of Russian Rheumatologists".

Russian rheumatologists held their meeting in Sochi to discuss the most urgent problems.

Most reports were devoted to the problem of rheumatic carditis. Academician A. Nesterov, president of the Russian Scientific Society of LABORATORY WORK NO Rheumatologists, spoke about the latent form of rheumatic carditis. This form may be almost asymptomatic or present only with general arthralgia, rapid pulse, and general weakness.

Academician A. Nesterov indicated that there was a strong relation of rheuma­tism to streptococcal disease and, may be, to specific reaction of certain patients to this chronic streptococcal infection.

A. Dolgopolova of the Moscow Institute of Rheumatological Research, Depart­ment of Pediatrics, again emphasized the need to differentiate rheumatic latent carditis from its acute and chronic forms.

N. Lukyanova called attention to the ambulatory forms of rheumatism, amour which a great number of LABORATORY WORK NO patients have latent rheumatic carditis.

U. Danys introduced a suggestion that chronic tonsillitis may produce a fuiu tional disturbance of myocardium. He called it the tonsillo-cardiac syndrome.

VII. 1. At the meeting of rheumatologists of Russian in Sochi most reports wendevoted to the problem of rheumatic carditis. 2. Their reports contained the com mon idea of the latent forms of rheumatic carditis. 3. Academician A. Nes

accociated rheumatism with streptococcal disease and specific reaction of certain patients to this chronic streptococcal infection. 4. U. Danys called the "tonsillocardiac syndrome" a functional disturbance of myocardium caused by chronic tonsillitis.

LABORATORY WORK NO LABORATORY WORK NO. 45 (LESSON 40)

LA.1. a general malaise; 2. early fatigue on exertion; 3. cardiac discomfort; 4. pal­pitation; 5. subfebrile temperature; 6. the pulse is irregular and accelerated on physi­cal exertion; 7. moderate leucocytosis; 8. elevated ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate); 9. changes in the readingsofan electrocardiogram; 10. the heart is found slightly enlarged on percussion; 11. a soft systolic murmur at the heart apex; 12. a diastolic murmur at the apex and the base of the heart

— The symptoms of what disease are they?

— They are the symptoms of rheumatic endocarditis.

Б. 1. the pain in the chest and behind the breastbone; 2. the pain radiates to the left shoulder and down the arm LABORATORY WORK NO, to the elbow and fingers; 3. the pain becomes worse on moving; 4. the face is pale and covered with cold perspiration; 5. the expression of the face shows fear and suffering; 6. the pain frequently begins suddenly at night during sleep; 7. the electrocardiogram shows the disturbances in the heart functions;

8. the increased skin sensitivity from the 7th cervical vertebra to the 5th upper thoracic one

— The clinical picture of what disease do all these symptomscompose?

— All these symptoms compose the clinical picture of angina pectoris.

B. 1. the general condition is becoming worse gradually; 2. a bad chill; 3. the pain in the affected side; 4. the LABORATORY WORK NO temperature rises to 39—40 °C; 5. loss of appetite; 6. pro­fuse perspiration at night; 7. dry cough; 8. considerable neutrophilic leucocytosis;

9. elevated ESR; 10. the presence of pus in the cavity.

— The clinical picture of what disease do the given symptoms compose?

— The given symptoms compose the clinical picture of the lung abscess.

II. 1. benign, malignant; 2. gradually, suddenly; 3. to exclude, to include; 4. fre­quently, seldom; 5. to diminish, to increase; 6. to deviate, to be constant; 7. to rise, to fall; 8. insufficiency, sufficiency; 9. permanent, changeable; 10. to improve, to become worse; 11. loss of weight, gain in weight

III. 1. onset; 2. strict; 3. to nourish; 4. to undergo; 5. a recurrence; 6. to note; 7. to radiate LABORATORY WORK NO; 8. to suffer from; 9. disturbance; 10. besides; 11. damage; 12. sign

IV. 1. a stage; 2. a malaise; 3. a fatigue; 4. pus; 5. palpitation; 6. a reading; 7. du­ration; 8. fibrillation

V. 1. to accelerate; 2. to improve; 3. to reduce; 4. to enlarge;5. tosuffer from; 6. to affect; 7. to precede; 8. to deviate

VI. 1. The surgeon insisted on operatingon the patient immediately. 2. The phy­sician insisted ondischarging the patient from the hospital. 3. The cardiologist in-

sisted on takingan electrocardiogram as soon as possible. 4. The neurologist insisted on hospitalizingmy sister in two days. 5. The surgeon insisted on makingan incision of the abscess on the finger at once.

VII.Listen to the text "High-Pressure Heart Surgery".

Not long ago LABORATORY WORK NO I watched a delicate heart operation. It was performed in a her­metically sealed high-pressure chamber at the Moscow Research Institute for Clini­cal and Experimental Surgery.

The operated man was 48 years old. He had been hardly able to move because he was suffering from a serious congenital valve defect.

Now this operation is considered not a very complex one. But in this patient there was a serious risk of blood clotting in the brain.

This risk became quite insignificant when the operation was performed in the high-pressure chamber. At normal air pressure the amount LABORATORY WORK NO of oxygen in a patient's blood remains unchanged even if he breathes in pure oxygen. In a pressure chamber the oxygen amount in the blood increases considerably. The oxygen prevents danger­ous after-effects in many parts of the body, including the brain cells, which are par­ticularly delicate. In a pressure chamber the surgeon is able to operate with greater freedom on vital organs such as the brain, heart or blood vessels.

But it is very hard to work under high pressure. When operations are performed at seven or eight atmosphere pressures, the operation can only last two and LABORATORY WORK NO a half hours. The personnel in the chamber have to be changed.

LABORATORY WORK NO. 46 (LESSON 41)

1. 1. influenceвлияние, действие, воздействие; влиять, оказывать влияние the influence on the course of the disease; to have influence on (over);

to have influence on the development; to influence the outcome of the disease; to influence the decision

2. majorityбольшинство

in the majority of cases; absolute majority; to be in the majority; to gain the majority

3. contribute способствовать, содействовать

to contribute to the development; to contribute to an attack of an acute pain; He contributed much to the development of virology.

4. nauseaтошнота

to complain of nausea; a feeling of nausea; to LABORATORY WORK NO suffer from nausea; to be accompanied by severe nausea;

5. perforateперфорировать, проникать

perforating (perforated) ulcer; perforated wound; the tissue perforated by the bullet

6. intermittentперемежающийся, прерывистый intermittent fever; intermittent reaction; intermittent temperature; intermittent pulse; intermittent pain

7. rareредкий; разреженный (неплотный)

a rare case; a rare complication; rare atmosphere; a rare quality

157П. 1. (поprep.) —, of, of, in; 2. of, to, in, of; 3. in, of, of, in, of; 4. of, of, of

III. influences — гл. 2. influence - сущ. 3. results (in) — гл. 4. results — сущ.

IV. 1. It is known that nausea develops in some stomach diseases.

2. It is considered that this patient has perforating ulcer of the duodenum.

3. It is believed that LABORATORY WORK NO intermittent fever accompanies inflammatory processes.

V. Listen to the text.

The cardinal symptoms of ulcer are pain, localized tenderness, hyperacidity of the gastric juice and vomiting of blood. The time at which the pain develops depends largely on the situation of the ulcer. If the ulcer is in the body of the stomach or near the cardiac end, that is, near the opening of the esophagus, pain may develop very shortly after eating and may disappear when the stomach is empty. In this case a sharply localized area of tenderness will be felt in the middle of the epigastrium or slightly LABORATORY WORK NO to the left and there may also be tenderness to the left of the lower spine. If the ulcer is near the pylorus pain will develop later in the course of digestion as the stomach is emptying itself. In ulcer of the duodenum an aching pain develops two, three or more hours after meals and is relieved by food.

The title of the text is "Pains in Case of Ulcers".

LABORATORY WORK NO. 47 (LESSON 42)

1. 1. malignantзлокачественный

malignant bacteria; malignant tissue; malignant tumour; malignant growths; to reveal malignant cells; Malignant tumours often result in metastases.

2. to suggestнаводить на мысль; предполагать; предлагать

to LABORATORY WORK NO suggest the lesion of the spinal column; to suggest the possibility of anaemia; to suggest a new theory. His pale face suggests bad health.

3. to supportподдерживать, подкреплять

to support the plans; to support one's proves; These facts support your theory. We support your suggestion.

4. hereditaryнаследственный

a hereditary disease; hereditary factors; a hereditary defect; the theory of heredi­tary development of cancer

5. nodeузел; нарост; утолщение

lymph nodes; enlarged cervical lymph nodes; lymph node enlargement

6. digestionпищеварение; усвоение (пиши); переваривание gastric digestion; a bad disturbance of digestion; digestion of food; secondary digestion; intracellular digestion

7. bleedingкровотечение

profuse bleeding; external bleeding; internal bleeding; nasal bleeding; to arrest bleeding; to be accompanied LABORATORY WORK NO by bleeding

8. to remainоставаться

to remain alive; The patient remained in a good state. The blood pressure re­mained constant. The heart size remained enlarged. 9. emptyпустой an empty stomach; an empty ward; on an empty stomach

II.intensity, majority; empty; healthy; dilate, eliminate; incidence' existence; perspiration, remission, digestion; positive; suggestive; malignant intermittent

HI.empty stomach; hot food; malignant tumour; profuse bleeding! gastric digestion; perforating ulcer; hereditary factors; lymphatic node; mucopumlent sputum

IV. profuse bleeding; bloody vomiting; temperature elevation; г1630 murmur; slight fibrillation; irregular pulse; enlarged lymph nodes; intermittentfever

V. 1. results in; 2. would dilate; 3. noted; 4. had been reducing

VI. 1. На седьмой послеоперационный день не произошло никакого же­лудочно LABORATORY WORK NO-кишечного кровотечения. 2. Не было никакой бол»ь связанной с этими поражениями, хотя больной жаловался на кровотечение- 3- При паль­пации нашли, что ни один лимфатический узел не был увеличен- 4. Никакие результаты анализа желудочного сока не помогают дифференИиР°вать доб~ рокачественное и злокачественное заболевание желудка. 5. При фискальном обследовании установили, что ни один сустав нижней конечности нс был отекшим и горячим.

VII. 1. A patient with tuberculosisis known to complainof profuse co'^ perspira­tion at night. 2. The patientproved to betoo weak to undergo the oPerat'on on the heart under hypothermia. 3. Some diseasesare known to be difficult todifferentiate at an early LABORATORY WORK NO stage. 4. Hereditary factorsare likely to contribute tothe development of some malignant diseases.

VIII. Listen to the text "Indications for Operations in Case of Ulcers"-Perforation of gastric or duodenal ulcer into the free peritoneal c^ity fe

cation for operation.

Surgical intervention is indicated in case of severe bleeding of tne upper gas­trointestinal tract when there are no signs of portal obstruction an(^ wnen the haemorrhage persists after 2.5 litres of blood transfusion.

The primary purpose of the operation is to arrest haemorrhage. But tne opera­tion should also have the purpose of healing the ulcer.

During the operation the stomach must LABORATORY WORK NO be opened widely. The operating sur­geon must make a thorough search for the bleeding point. But ofteritne surgeon is unable to find such a point. In such a case three-fourths of the stomacn must be resected.

If severe haemorrhage reoccurs in the postoperative period a rep^ate^ operation of the stomach should be carried out. In this case all the stomach except a 1 cm mar­gin at the esophagus should be resected.

indi-

LABORATORY WORK NO. 48 (LESSON 43)

I. tender, tenderness; to remove, removed, to move, movement, movable, re­moval; to suggest, suggestion, suggestive; to appear LABORATORY WORK NO, to disappear, appearance, disap­pearance; indigestion, digestive, to digest, digestion;

bleeding, to bleed; to inherit, hereditary, heredity; to recur, recurrence

II. to spread — to radiate; to enlarge — to dilate; permanent — constant; to per­forate - to rupture; to rise — to elevate; wound — lesion; slight—mild; acute—sharp; to decrease-to diminish; to cause — to produce; to affect — to involve

III. to result in — to result from; to improve — to become worse;

frequent — rare; moist — dry; malignant — benign; internal — external; to precede — to follow; exertion— rest; fat — thin; gradually — suddenly; onset — end

IV. 1. существительные с суффиксами: -ness, -ity, -merit, -ion, -ence, -ure; 2. глаголы с LABORATORY WORK NO суффиксами: -у; -ize, -ate, -en; 3. прилагательные с суффиксами: -ous, -able, -ary, -ent, -we

V. 1. After gastric carcinoma had been revealed in the patient he had to undergo a surgical operation. 2. While the patient was gradually recovering from tonsillitis he noted the appearance of some spastic pains in the abdomen. 3. When the patient had undergone the course of an adequate treatment he did not.complain of any dis­comfort in the stomach. 4. After the nurse had bandaged the wound she allowed the patient to stand up.

VI. Listen to the following statements.

1. The substance becomes hotter when the atoms move more rapidly LABORATORY WORK NO. 2. Vitamin D which is very important for bone formation is found only in vertebrate beings. 3. In a young person fat makes about 15 % of the body weight. 4. Fats inhibit gastric secre­tion.

VII. 1. When does the substance become hotter? 2. What have you learned about vitamin D? 3. How much of the body weight does fat make in a young per­son? 4. What effect do fats produce on gastric secretion?

LABORATORY WORK NO. 49 (LESSON 44)

1. 1. bileжёлчь

bile cyst; bile passages; to find bile stones; to carry out bile tests

2. jaundiceжелтуха; желтушность

to diagnose congenital hemolitic jaundice; the attack of acute jaundice; jaundice of the new-born; jaundice LABORATORY WORK NO of the sclerae;

3. advanceвыдвигать (идею); продвигаться вперед

to advance rapidly; to advance a new theory; an advanced form of a disease; to advance a valuable suggestion; a far advanced case

4. effortусилие

to make a great effort; It does not need much effort. His life was saved thanks to the efforts of all the doctors.

5. elderlyпожилой

an elderly male (man); an elderly female (woman); The patient was an elderly man.

6. surviveвыжить; остаться в живых; перенести (операцию)

Some viruses survive under high temperature. The patient has survived the op­eration well. He survived five years after the operation.

7. sourceисточник

the source of infection: the source LABORATORY WORK NO of knowledge; to determine the source of an infectious disease; to investigate all possible sources of inflammation

8. entireвесь, целый

to read the entire article; the entire medical personnel; the entire course of a disease

9. subsequentпоследующий; subsequentlyвпоследствии

subsequent studies; to prevent subsequent complications; It may affect the liver subsequently.

10. simultaneousодновременный; simultaneouslyодновременно simultaneous effort of all the doctors; simultaneous damage to some organs; with

simultaneous loss of appetite; to carry out various observations simultaneously

11. 1. What do common duct, cystic duct and cystic artery form? 2. Why were 120 women followed-up? 3. When did varying degrees of jaundice develop in ten patients? 4. What follow-up examination has he subsequently refused LABORATORY WORK NO?

III. 1. was advanced; 2. source; 3. entire; 4. simultaneously

IV. 1. Когда проводился физикальный осмотр, была выявлена болезнен­ность в левой нижней части живота. 2. Когда имеется разлитая боль в обла­сти живота, немедленно вызывают врача. 3. Средний возраст больных при поступлении был 48,4 года, причем самому младшему было 36 лет. 4. Хотя больному сделали еще одну инъекцию, он все-таки жаловался на боль в печени.

V. 1. Retention of urine being noted on examination, the patient was considered to have some kidney disturbances. 2. Gastritis and ulcers having been determined to contribute to the development of various tumours, their adequate treatment andpreventive measures must be carried out extensively. 3. The LABORATORY WORK NO pains being character ized by severe intensity, the patient was suggested to have gastric ulcer.

VI. Listen to the text "Chronic Hepatitis". Acute hepatitis may have a chr»course. Prolonged irritation of the liver by chemical or bacterial toxins results h inflammation of the liver parenchyma, it being accompanied by atrophy of tin cells.

In the initial stage chronic hepatitis may develop without any clearly marked Nyitoms. In certain forms of the disease the main symptom is jaundice, it lastnseveral months or even years.As soon as chronic hepatitis is diagnosed it is necessary to eliminate the cause LABORATORY WORK NO of the condition. If tuberculosis or malaria are responsible for the disease they must be treated first.

Treatment during exacerbations is the same as for acute hepatitis. During remis­sions the general and dietary regimen may be more varied. The diet must be nourish­ing and varied, but alcohol and fat food must be completely excluded.

At this stage treatment with mineral salts at sanatoriums is recommended as min­eral salts have a benign influence on the hepatic parenchyma. The patient must be prescribed such medicines which inhibit fatty infiltration of the liver, lipoeaine being one of them.

Prophylaxis for LABORATORY WORK NO chronic hepatitis consists in early diagnosis, early hospitalization and adequate treatment of patients with acute infectious hepatitis.

Measures must be taken against the influence of various industrial, drug and do­mestic poisoning substances.

VII. 1. What is the possible cause of chronic hepatitis? 2. What are the main symptoms of the disease? 3. What must be done as soon as the diagnosis of the dis­ease is made? 4. What does the treatment of chronic hepatitis consist in?-5. What must prophylaxis for this disease be aimed at?

VIII. The announcer reads the text "Chronic Hepatitis" once more.

LABORATORY WORK NO. SO (LESSON LABORATORY WORK NO 45)

1. 1. constipationзапор

inflammatory constipation: to suffer from chronic constipation; i to be treated for alimentary constipation

2. irritationраздражение

nervous irritation; the irritation of the peritoneum; to find out bad irritation of the skin; to result in slight irritation

3. approximateпримерный, приблизительный; approximatelyпримерно, приблизительно

approximate data; the approximate level of blood sugar; to determine possible deviations approximately; How much time approximately will the treatment take?

4. emergencyнеотложный случай; срочный, неотложный, экстренный

in case of emergency; emergency case; emergency medical service. Emergency measures were taken immediately.

II. 1. to vomit blood; 2. to advance the theory; 3. to survive the operation; 4. to bandage the wound; 5. to influence the level

III. 1. to; 2. of, to, of; 3. of LABORATORY WORK NO, from, of, from; of; 4. in, on, of, from, of; 5. in, of, to

IV. 1. When was normal cardiac rhythm established? 2. Where were intense pains localized? 3. What had prolonged antibiotic therapy and chemotherapy been preceded by? 4. What did I. P. Pavlov state?

V. I. being; 2. being involved; 3. having been performed I been arrestoi

VI. Listen to the text "Gallstones".

Gallstones are found in 10-15 % of people. They have bt i'.cred even In the new-born. However until the age of 15-20 their occum m xtremely гаи-After the age of 70 gallstones may be found in every third pers.........ncidenceofth*

disease among women being considerably more than LABORATORY WORK NO amonr и

Gallstones are formed in the gallbladder and bile ducts. I hi'ii origin is due to disturbances of cholesterol metabolism, that is an increased a mi и i hi с il cholesterol In the blood and bile. Inflammatory processes in the gallbladder.iml bileducts arc alsoresponsible for the development of gallstones.

The stones may remain in the gallbladder for years withoutcausing discomloi i In other cases the stones are responsible for the developmeni l n serious disea*named cholelithiasis, it causing the patient great suffering and sometimes resultln|in a fatal outcome.

The chief symptoms of cholelithiasis are LABORATORY WORK NO attacks of sharp painin the right hypochondrium, they often being accompanied-hyjyomiting, chill, mikI a high temperature. Jaundice may develop in cases when a gallstone occludes a large hepatic or billduct.

During such attacks the patient is usually given a subcutaneous injectioi pantopon, atropine or promedole. The patient must follow complete bed rest, Iи i| water bottles being constantly applied to the liver area to relieve pain.

LABORATORY WORK NO. 51 (LESSON 46)

I. emergency — неотложный случай; dryness — сухость; survival — выжима i tenderness — болезненность; чувствительность; evidence - проявл< доказательство; incidence - частота случаев; digestion — пищеварение; p;i — проход, прохождение; addition - добавление; disturbance — нарушение struction — закупорка LABORATORY WORK NO; intensity — интенсивность; напряженность.

II. skin irritation — раздражение кожи; lymph node - лимфатичо узел; stool retention — задержка стула; liver damage — поражение печhemoglobin level — уровень гемоглобина; incubation period — инк\> онный период

III. 1, 3 — ли; 2. — если

IV. 1. Сообщалось, что при таком условии десять дней яв I возможным пределом выживания клеток, (указат. местоим.) 2. П" ! что боль вызвана закупоркой коронарной или легочной артерии. < i местоим. — заменитель сущ.) 3. Установлено, что кровотечение ил ii|i кишки часто является следствием опухоли какого-либо отдела жел;кишечного тракта, (союз) 4. Кажется, что в этом случае закупорка i сосудов дала результат, отличный от результата в нашем случае местоим. — заменитель сущ.)V. 1. Urinalysis having LABORATORY WORK NO been carried out, bile was revealed in it. 2. In chronic cholecystitis patients complain of pain in the right hypochondrium, it radiating to the right shoulder during attacks. 3. Rash being found on the chest and behind the ears, the diagnosis of chicken-pox was suggested.

VI. 1. K. Funk, a Polish researcher, was the first to isolate vitamins in their pure form in 1911. 2. A daily dose of 1 to 1.5 grams of vitamin С causes sugar to appear in urine. 3. In 1907 I. P. Pavlov received the Nobel Prize for his researches on the asso­ciations between the central nervous system and the LABORATORY WORK NO functions of the internal or­gans. 4. Within 24 hours about 1 litre of bile is produced.

VII. 1. Why is the name of the Polish researcher K. Funk known? 2. What daily dose of vitamin С causes sugar to appear in urine? 3. For what researches did I. P. Pavlov receive the Nobel Prize? 4. What amount of bile is produced within 24 hours?

LABORATORY WORK NO. 52 (LESSON 47)

I. 1.intermittent-constant, 2. rare—frequent; 3. malignant— benign; 4. hot -cold; 5. empty - full; 6. elderly - young; 7. survive - die; 8. preceding - subsequent; 9. approximate - exact

II. contribution — вклад; perforation — прободение; suggestion - пред­ложение; предположение; digestion — пищеварение; constipation - запор; ir­ritation — раздражение

III. intermittently — перемежаясь; с перерывами; rarely LABORATORY WORK NO — редко; entirely — полностью; subsequently - впоследствии; simultaneously —

одновременно; approximately V приблизительно

IV. 1. has; 2. reveal; 3. suggests; 4. will eliminate; 5. was aimed

V. 1. K. Bykov and I. Kurstin are known to have developedthe neurogenous theory of the pathogenesis of ulcer. 2. The prominent Russian scientist S. Botkin is known to be the first to advance the idea of the infectious origin of hepatitis. 3. Ul­cer is observed to developin particularly nervous persons. 4. Chronic gastritis js con­sidered to developdue to inadequate food, alcohol and bad diet regimen. 5. Botkin's disease is known to causeinflammatory changes and degeneration of hepatic cells and damage to the LABORATORY WORK NO bile ducts.

VI. Listen to the text "Cancer Cells".

The main difference between normal and cancer cells is one of the growth and differentiation: most cancer cells are in their structure more like those of the young organism (fetus) than those of the adult.

They generally grow and divide more rapidly and in a disorganized fashion, but normal cells only divide and grow until they come into contact with adjacent cells and then stop their growth.

Researchers have tried to treat cancers by using drugs which inhibit the division of cells. The most rapidly dividing cancer cells will be affected by these LABORATORY WORK NO drugs before the more slowly growing normal cells.

The major problem in cancer research now is concentrated on trying to find out the more delicate differences between cancer and normal cells.

Researchers study the structure of the cell wall and try to determine why cancer cells do not recognize other cells.

Another branch of research has been to study the internal mechanism of the cell, i. e. to find differences between the nuclei of cancerous and normal cells, because the nucleus is that part of the cell which appears to regulate the growth and differentia­tion of LABORATORY WORK NO all cells.

VII.I. What have you learned about the nature of cancer cells? 2. What re­searches are being carried on in this field?

MO

LABORATORY WORK NO. 53 (LESSON 48)

1. 1. lackне хватать, недоставать; нехватка, недостаток

the lacking number of red blood cells; the lack of information; complete lack of bile. Some data are lacking in the case history. Some people may lack resistance to certain microbes.

2. relativeотносительный; сравнительный

relative association; relative progress; relative position; relative to; relative to his health. Relative changes were observed.

3. previousпредшествующий, предыдущий

previous attacks; previous studies; previous admission to the hospital; previous lesions of the liver. The patient has been operated on LABORATORY WORK NO twice previously.

4. injureповреждать, поражать

to injure one's leg; to injure some inner organs; an injured bone; The injured tissues were removed.

5. injectвводить (лекарство), впрыскивать,закапывать (лекарство) to inject a drug into the body. Saline solution was injected simultaneously. The injected medi­cine produced a marked effect.

6. subcutaneousподкожный

subcutaneous injection of medicine; to give subcutaneous vaccination. The medi­cine was injected subcutaneously.

7. employприменять, использовать

to employ anew method; the employed procedures. No vaccination was em­ployed in this case. A new surgical technique was employed successfully.

II. I. the lack of red blood cells; 2. previously; 3. the previous symptoms; 4. rela LABORATORY WORK NO­tive to; 5. injected subcutaneously; 6. to be employed

III. 1.... I should administerthe patient a repeated vaccination; 2.... the patient should be followedup during a year; 3. ... asufficient amount of antitoxins should be produced in thebody when infection invades it; 4.... he were ill with jaundice.

165ГУ. 1. придаточное предл. условия с союзом if.Если бы больной болел гепатитом, жёлчь была бы обнаружена в моче. 3. придаточное предл. цели с союзом lest.Удалите весь желудок, чтобыне появились метастазы. 5. при­даточное предл. условия, бессоюзное. Если бы они знали данные анализа мочи, диагноз был бы поставлен раньше.

V. 1. Immunity is a specific capacity of resistance against infection. 2. There are LABORATORY WORK NO two kinds of immunity, natural and artificial. 3. A previous attack of an infectious disease produces a more or less permanent protection against subsequent infection.

4. An antitoxin is a chemical antidote which is specific for the particular infection.

5. Antitoxins neutralize toxins. 6. Phagocytes are white cells which prevent the spread of bacteria and destroy them. 7. Active artificial immunity is produced by employing vaccinations.

VI. Listen to the text.

1.1. Mechnikov was born in 1845 in the village of Ivanovka, not far from the city of Kharkov.

Since his early childhood 1.1. Mechnikov had become interested in natural sci­ences. Being a pupil of the sixth form LABORATORY WORK NO he began to attend the course of university lectures delivered by the prominent physiologist of those days, Professor Schelckov.

I. I. Mechnikov graduated from Kharkov University when he was only 19 years old. While studying at the University he published several scientific articles in zool­ogy. In 1870 at the age of 25 I.I. Mechnikov became one of the leading professors of Odessa University. But twelve years later, in 1882 he left the University demonstrat­ing his protest against the tzarist ministry of education. He began hisintense re­search work in his private laboratory. In 18871.1. Mechnikov went abroad and spent almost LABORATORY WORK NO 30 years in Paris as a worker at the Pasteur Institute.

I. I. Mechnikov was the first to observe the phenomenon of phagocytosis in ex­periments with lower animals. Once 1.1. Mechnikov was examining daphnia through the microscope. He observed bacteria in the form of a long stick enter the body of daphnia. At the same moment these bacteria were surrounded by the movable cells of the animal's body and destroyed by them.

I. I. Mechnikov took great interest in this phenomenon and began his regular observations, which enabled him to see clearly that every time the movable cells were not LABORATORY WORK NO able to destroy the invading microbes daphnia became ill and finally perished. On the basis of his observations I.I. Mechnikov proved that white blood cells of the human being had the ability to pass through the walls of the capillary' vessels and to destroy the invading microbes. 1.1. Mechnikov called these cells phagocytes and the phenomenon itself phagocytosis. 1.1. Mechnikov also determined what defence forces the human body had and why not every bacterial infection resulted in a disease.

In 1908 1.1. Mechnikov received the Nobel Prize for his investigations on phago­cytosis.

!66

1.1. Mechnikov performed considerable work on the effect of lactic acid LABORATORY WORK NO on bac­teria and its counteracting intestinal poisons and devoted many years of his life to the problem of aging.

1.1. Mechnikov died in 1916 at the age of 71.

LABORATORY WORK NO. 54 (LESSON 49)

1. 1. backacheболь в спине

a sharp backache; to feel a bad backache; to complain of a severe backache; to control the backache with medicine

2. smearмазок

to.examine the smear; to take the smear for analysis; to reveal diphtheria bacilli in the smear I

3. cultureпосев, выращивание бактерий

the culture of the smear (the smear culture); to study the culture for tuberculosis bacilli. The culture was negative for pneumococci.

4. extremeкрайний, чрезвычайный; extremelyчрезвычайно, крайне

with extreme care LABORATORY WORK NO; to carry out extreme measures; to be in the state of extreme danger; extremely difficult; to act extremely carefully

5. convalescenceвыздоровление

a smooth convalescence; a slow convalescence. The convalescence is advancing favourably. No complications were noted during the period of convalescence.'

6. outcomeисход

favourable outcome; the outcome of the disease; to prevent a fataloutcome; toinfluence the outcome of the operation favourably

II. 1. A dentist may treat a patient with a toothache. 2. A neurologistmay treata patient with a headache. 3. A gastroenterologist may treat a patient with a stomach­ache.4. An otolaryngologist may treat a patient with an earache.

III. 1. cultures; 2. backache; 3. outcome; 4. smear; 5. extreme; 6. con LABORATORY WORK NO­valescence; 7. fatal

IV. 1. The girl had a considerably elevated fever. She complained of a mild head­ache and backache. Her pulse was weak and irregular. 2. The patient's throat was coated with a membrane. 3. The culture of the smear revealed diphtheria bacilli. 4. The membrane began to spread to the pharynx and larynx from the tonsils. Pros­tration became clearly marked. 5. The girl received the treatment with diphtheria antitoxin. 6. In five days the membrane on the tonsils, pharynx, and larynx began to loosen and disintegrate. In ten days the danger of a fatal outcome was completely eliminated.

V. Listen to the LABORATORY WORK NO text "Scarlet Fever".

In scarlet fever the period of invasion lasts only twenty-four hours, it being char­acterized by headaches, vomiting, sore throat, and rapid pulse. In mild cases, when the patient is seen in the later stages of the disease, the diagnosis is often made from

167the character of emption. Examining the patient the physician usually notes the in­flammation ofthe throat which is associated with the enlargement ofthe glands of the neck. The typical symptoms ofthe disease are associated with the common si­multaneous phenomena, loss of appetite, gastrointestinal disturbances, small amount of urine of dark LABORATORY WORK NO colour, and mild delirium being most frequent. In scarlet fever dur­ing the final stage of convalescence the patient may feel almost well, but the most serious complications sometimes occur, kidney impairment being the most charac­teristic.

VI.,1. In scarlet fever the period of invasion is characterized by headaches, vom­iting, sore throat and rapid pulse. 2. On examination ofthe patient in later stages of the disease the diagnosis is made on the grounds ofthe character of eruption. 3. The typical symptoms ofthe disease are associated with the common simultaneous phe­nomena: loss of appetite, gastrointestinal disturbances, small amount of urine of dark colour LABORATORY WORK NO and mild delirium. 4. The most characteristic complications is the kid­ney impairment which may occur during the final stage of convalescence.

VII.The announcer reads the text "Scarlet Fever" once more.

LABORATORY WORKNO. 55(LESSON 50)

I. ,1. прилаг. достаточный; 2. сущ. емкость; 3. прилаг. относительный; 4. прилаг. предшествующий; 5. сущ. изнеможение; 6. сущ. выздоровление; 7. сущ. посев; 8. прилаг. летальный; 9. гл. распадаться; 10. гл. нейтрализовать; 11. прилаг. жизненный; 12. сущ. сухость; 13. сущ. неотложный случай; 14. пршаг. подкожный; 15. нареч. чрезвычайно; 16. прилаг. лихорадочный.

II. а) 1. lack; 2. associated with (relative to): 3. previous; 4. to injure; 5. to em­ploy (to apply); 6. convalescence; 7. an outcome;

6) 1. fatal; 2. absolute; 3. natural; 4. to disintegrate; 5. an outcome; 6. following; 7.to inject

III. 1. Immunity is the LABORATORY WORK NO resistance ofthe human body against infections. 2. This medicine was injected subcutaneously. 3. The initial symptoms of infection appear during the period of invasion. 4. Some persons lack natural immunity to certain in­fectious diseases. 5. The lesions of vital organs may result in a fatal outcome.

IV. 1. A previous attack of a certain infectious disease produces a more or less permanent protection against subsequent infection. 2. Fermentation is produced by the development of a particular microbe. 3. If the principles of asepsis had not been strictly followed in medicine thousands of human lives would have been lost because of sepsis. 4. The examination LABORATORY WORK NO ofthe throat of a diphtheria patient reveals a mem­brane covering it. 5. The treatment with diphtheria antitoxin contributes to the pro­cess of convalescence in diphtheria patients.

V. The patient was ill with scarlet fever.

VI. Listen to the text "The Periods of an Infectious Disease".

In the widest sense an infectious disease is one due to the invasion ofthe human body by specific germs of some sort which infect it. The infectious disease with a relatively short course is called an acute infectious disease, the others are called chronic infectious diseases.

The course of an infectious disease is often LABORATORY WORK NO marked by certain stages or periods, each having a special term.

The period during which the germs are developing in the body without charac­teristic clinical manifestations is called the period of incubation.

It is followed by the prodromal stage during which the initial symptoms may ap­pear. \

Then comes the stage of a fully developed disease or the stage of fastigium which in case of a disease with cutaneous eruption is called the period of eruption.

The last period is the stage of decline, in the eruptive fevers sometimes called the period of desquamation.

VII. What LABORATORY WORK NO four periods of an infectious disease are there? They are: 1. the period of incubation; 2. the prodromal period; 3. the period of a fully developed disease; 4. the period of decline.

A


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